Evidence from the Great East Japan Earthquake", "Energy and resilience: The effects of endogenous interdependencies on trade network formation across space among major Japanese firms", Fault that Caused Japan's 2011 Earthquake is Thin and Slippery. The tsunami caused nuclear accidents, primarily the level 7 meltdowns at three reactors in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant complex, and the associated evacuation zones affecting hundreds of thousands of residents. Stuart Biggs and Aaron Sheldrick (11 March 2011). The quake triggered a … Another cause of delayed evacuations was the release of the second update on the tsunami warning long after the earthquake (28 minutes, according to observations); by that time, power failures and similar circumstances reportedly prevented the update from reaching some residents. The tsunami broke icebergs off the Sulzberger Ice Shelf in Antarctica. [273] Two substations, one in Shizuoka Prefecture and one in Nagano Prefecture, were able to convert between frequencies and transfer electricity from Kansai to Kanto and Tōhoku, but their capacity was limited to 1 GW. These observations included tsunami maximum readings of over 3 metres (9.8 ft) at the following locations and times on 11 March 2011, following the earthquake at 14:46 JST:[162], Many areas were also affected by waves of 1 to 3 metres (3 ft 3 in to 9 ft 10 in) in height, and the JMA bulletin also included the caveat that "At some parts of the coasts, tsunamis may be higher than those observed at the observation sites." The electrical power and backup generators were overwhelmed by the tsunami, and the plant lost its cooling capabilities. [353] Internet services were largely unaffected in areas where basic infrastructure remained, despite the earthquake having damaged portions of several undersea cable systems landing in the affected regions; these systems were able to reroute around affected segments onto redundant links. [92] A report by the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, published in Science on 2 December 2011, concluded that the seabed in the area between the epicenter and the Japan Trench moved 50 metres (160 ft) east-southeast and rose about 7 metres (23 ft) as a result of the quake. Part 1: A Brief Survey of Religious Mobilization after the Great East Japan Earthquake Disasters". A total of 125 km2 (48 sq mi; 31,000 acres) of ice broke away. [136][137] The impact of the tsunami in and around Sendai Airport was filmed by an NHK News helicopter, showing a number of vehicles on local roads trying to escape the approaching wave and being engulfed by it. The main iceberg measured 9.5 km × 6.5 km (5.9 mi × 4.0 mi) (approximately the area of Manhattan Island) and about 80 m (260 ft) thick. Entire towns were destroyed in tsunami-hit areas in Japan, including 9,500 missing in Minamisanriku;[142] one thousand bodies had been recovered in the town by 14 March 2011. JMA also implemented a simpler empirical method to integrate, into a tsunami warning, data from GPS tidal meters as well as from undersea water pressure meters, and there are plans to install more of these meters and to develop further technology to utilize data observed by them. [140] At least 101 designated tsunami evacuation sites were hit by the wave. [12][32][33] The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant cooling system was damaged, raising fears of a meltdown. Japan earthquake and tsunami, severe natural disaster that occurred in northeastern Japan on March 11, 2011, and killed at least 20,000 people. [74] A quake of this magnitude usually has a rupture length of at least 500 km (310 mi) and generally requires a long, relatively straight fault surface. One of the first major foreshocks was a 7.2 Mw event on 9 March, approximately 40 km (25 mi) from the epicenter of the 11 March earthquake, with another three on the same day in excess of 6.0 Mw. [302] As the nuclear crisis entered a second month, experts said that Fukushima Daiichi, while not the worst nuclear accident ever, was the most complicated. The 2011 Japan Earthquake: Tōhoku Japan experienced one of its largest seismic events on March 11 2011. Overall electricity consumption during July and August was also 14% less than in the previous year. Petty Officer 1st Class Matthew Bradley/U.S. [256][257], The Fujinuma irrigation dam in Sukagawa ruptured,[258] causing flooding and the washing away of five homes. [368], 754 cultural properties were damaged across nineteen prefectures, including five National Treasures (at Zuigan-ji, Ōsaki Hachiman-gū, Shiramizu Amidadō, and Seihaku-ji); 160 Important Cultural Properties (including at Sendai Tōshō-gū, the Kōdōkan, and Entsū-in, with its western decorative motifs); one hundred and forty-four Monuments of Japan (including Matsushima, Takata-matsubara, Yūbikan, and the Site of Tagajō); six Groups of Traditional Buildings; and four Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties. The Tohoku earthquake and tsunami that struck the northeast coast of Japan on 11 March has created an enormous human and ecological disaster. The direct financial damage from the disaster is estimated to be about $199 billion dollars (about 16.9 trillion yen), according to the Japanese government. "Spatial distribution and focal mechanisms of aftershocks of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tōhoku Earthquake" by Y. Asano, T. Saito, Y. Ito, K. Shiomi, H. Hirose, T. 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