Because of these two major factors, one economic and the other po­litical, Gujarat at the beginning of the 19th century had a large urban population, distributed over a large number of small towns. In particular, the implications of the co-existence of lower-order divisions within a higher- order division in the same town or city should be worked out. I am dealing here only with certain typical situations. Although some of them set up shops in villages they rarely became full-fledged members of the village community. Division and Hierarchy: An Overview of Caste in Gujarat! The social relations between and within a large number of such segre­gated castes should be seen in the context of the overall urban environment, characterized as it was by co-existence of local Hindu castes with immigrant Hindu castes and with the non-Hindu groups such as Jains, Muslims, Parsis and Christians, a higher degree of monetization, a higher degree of contractual and market relations (conversely, a lesser de­gree of jajmani-type relations), existence of trade guilds, and so on. The Rajput’s’ relationship with the Kolis penetrated every second-or­der division among them, i.e., Talapada, Pardeshi, Chumvalia, Palia, and so on. The hierarchy, however, was very gradual and lacked sharp­ness. It reflects, on the one hand, the political aspirations of Kolis guided by the importance of their numerical strength in electoral politics and on the other hand, the Rajputs’ attempt to regain power after the loss of their princely states and estates. When Jadhav told his surname, Rajput asked him that if he belongs to the Kshatriya or Darbar community. No sooner had the village studies begun that their limitations and the need for studying caste in its horizontal dimension were realized. This meant that he could marry a girl of any subdivision within the Vania division. Dalit youths were attacked by upper caste men. The incident happened in Gujarat's Sandipada village when the wedding procession of Akash Kotdia (27), an Army jawan posted in Jammu and Kashmir, was underway amid objections from some upper-caste community members. Damyantee Dhar. While we do get evidence of fission of caste divisions of a higher or­der into two or more divisions of a lower order, the mere existence of divisions of a lower order should not be taken as evidence of fission in a division of a higher order. I have bits and pieces of information about relations between a con­siderable numbers of other lower-order divisions in their respective higher-order divisions. Kayatias and Tapodhans were consid­ered such low Brahmans that even some non-Brahman castes did not accept food and water from them. All this trade encouraged devel­opment of trading and commercial towns in the rest of Gujarat, even in the highland area. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. Most associations continue to retain their non-political character. The latter left the scene after telling Jadav to meet him outside the factory after work. This however did not go down well with Rajput who became angry and asked how can he keep an upper-caste surname when he was a Dalit. A few examples are: Brahman (priest), Vania (trader), Rajput (warrior and ruler), Kanbi (peasant), Koli (peasant), Kathi (peasant), Soni goldsmith), Suthar (carpenter), Valand (barber), Chamar (leatherworker), Dhed (weaver) and Bhangi (scavenger). Jadav still tried to play it down saying that he was just like Rajput's brother. The boundaries of caste division were fairly clear in the vil­lage community. Sometimes a division could even be a self-contained endogamous unit. It is easy to understand that the pattern of change would be different in those first-order divisions (such as Rajput) or second-order divisions (such as Leva Kanbi) which did not have within them subdivisions of lower orders and which practised hypergamy extensively. India’s most marginalised communities remain threatened by the upper caste community for reasons as petty as fetching water from well and also for marrying outside their castes. The co-residence of people belonging to two or more divisions of a lower or­der within a division of a higher order has been a prominent feature of caste in towns and cities. The complainant, Bharat Jadhav, a resident of Sanand alleged that he was beaten up by an upper-caste man and his aides outside an automobile parts manufacturing unit where he works on Tuesday. It is not easy to find out if the tads became ekdas in course of time and if the process of formation of ekdas was the same as that of the formation of tads. A recent tendency in sociological literature is to consider jatis as castes. Second, there used to be in­tense intra-ekda politics, and tads were formed as a result of some continuing conflict among ekda leaders and over the trial of violation of ekda rules. In recent years, however, there has been a tendency to emphasize hierarchy as the primary principle encompassing the principle of division. Within each of these divisions, small endogamous units (ekdas, gols, bandhos) were organized from time to time to get relief from the difficul­ties inherent in hypergamy. I have, therefore, considered them a first-order division and not a second-order one among Brahmans (for a fuller discussion of the status of Anavils, see Joshi, 1966; Van der Veen 1972; Shah, 1979). The sub- the manner in which the ideas of free marriages and castles society are used by both the old and the young in modern India and how a number of new customs and institutions have evolved to cope with these new ideas is a fascinating subject of study. Similarly, although the number of marriages between the second-order di­visions in the Vania division, i.e., between Khadayata, Modh, Shrimali, Lad, Vayada, etc., has been increasing, the majority of marriages take place within the respective second-order divisions. According to the Rajput’s I know in central Gujarat, the highest stra­tum among them consisted of the royal families of large and powerful kingdoms in Gujarat and neighbouring Rajasthan, such as those of Bhavnagar, Jamnagar, Kachchh, Porbandar, Bikaner, Idar, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, Udaipur, and so on. An important idea behind the activities of caste associations is: serv­ice to one’s caste is service to the nation. The Kolis seem to have had only two divisions in every part of Gujarat: for example, Talapada (indigenous) and Pardeshi (foreign) in central Gujarat and Palia and Baria in eastern Gujarat (significantly, one considered indigenous and the other outsider). Let me illustrate briefly. The marital alliances of the royal families forming part of the Maratha confederacy, and of the royal families of Mysore in south India and of Kashmir and Nepal in the north with the royal families of Gujarat and Rajasthan show, among other things, how there was room for flexibility and how the rule of caste en­dogamy could be violated in an acceptable manner at the highest level. Rajput hypergamy seems to have provided an important mechanism for integration of the lower caste and tribal population into the Hindu soci­ety over the entire length and breadth of northern, western, central and even eastern India. But there were also others who did not wield any power. While the Rajputs, Leva Patidars, Anavils and Khedawals have been notorious for high dowries, and the Kolis have been looked down upon for their prac­tice of bride price, the Vanias have been paying neither. Each ekda or gol was composed of a definite number of families living in certain villages and/or towns. What is your perception of this? As for the size of other castes, I shall make mainly relative statements. Roughly, while in the plains area villages are nucleated settlements, populated by numerous castes, in the highland area villages are dispersed settlements, populated by tribes and castes of tribal origin. For example, the Patanwadia population was spread continuously from the Patan area to central Gujarat, and the Talapada population from cen­tral Gujarat to Pal. As per the 2019 report of National Crime Records Bureau, Gujarat is fourth in … Hopeful Abdallah addresses lack of playing time at SC Villa, Instakart, Swiggy under taxman radar for vendor GST fraud, The 7 Best Snacks for a Healthy Immune System, Salt water is the best skin healer for me: Hailey Bieber, Dakar 2021: Stage 5 sees Hero MotoSports riders move into top 20 overall, Sonakshi Sinha Shares Relatable Video on the Joys of Midnight Snacking, Watch, Pakistan anti-terrorism court issues arrest warrant against JeM chief Masood Azhar, Throwback: When Katrina Kaif spilled the beans on her bond with Salman Khan as a co star, Jonny Bairstow confident ahead of anticipated Test recall: 'I think my game's in the best place it's been', What is Kik? They adopted Rajput customs and traditions, claimed Rajput status, and gave daughters in marriage to Rajput’s in the lower rungs of Rajput hierar­chy. There was another kind of ambiguity about the Brahman status or two other divisions—Kayatia and Tapodhan. In a paper on Caste among Gujaratis in East Africa, Pocock (1957b) raised pointedly the issue of the relative importance of the principles of division (he called it ‘difference’) and hierarchy. Usually, a single Koli division had different local names in different parts of Gujarat, but more about this later. Thus, the result was the spread of the population of a caste division towards its fringes. A large number of priestly, artisan and service castes also lived in both villages and towns: Bramhans, barbers, carpenters, blacksmiths, shoemakers, leather-workers, scavenges, water-carriers, palanquin-bearers, and so on. To take one sensitive area of purity/pollution behaviour, the concern for observance of rules of commensality has greatly declined not only in urban but also in rural areas. If the marriage took place within the Vania fold but outside the tad or ekda, as the case may be, the punishment varied according to the social distance between the tads or ek­das of the bride and the groom. Village studies, as far as caste is a part of them, have been, there fore, concerned with the interrelations between sections of various castes in the local context. The under­standing of changes in caste is not likely to be advanced by clubbing such diverse groups together under the rubric of ethnic group. Gujarat was never a progressive State so far as social and cultural life is concerned. For the sake of bravity and simplicity of presentation, I have not pro­vided detailed documentation. The Levas, Anavils and Khedawals provide examples of castes whose internal organization had a strong emphasis on the principle of hi­erarchy and a weak emphasis on that of division. 23 May 2019. The migrants, many of whom came from heterogeneous urban cen­tres of Gujarat, became part of an even more heterogeneous environment in Bombay. They co-existed in the highlands with tribes such as the Bhils, so much so that today fre­quently many high caste Gujaratis confuse them with Bhils, as did the ear­lier ethnographers. & Date 1. At one end there were castes in which the principle of hierar­chy had free play and the role of the principle of division was limited. The most important of them was the Koli division, which was, the largest division and mainly included small land­holders, tenants and labourers. Nor were ekdas and tads entirely an urban phenomenon. I would suggest that this feature of urban caste, along with the well known general tendency of urban culture to encourage innovation, provided the ground—however diffuse that ground might have been—for a favourable response to the anti-hierarchical ideas coming from the West. Kolis were the largest first-order division in Gujarat. Although they claimed to be Brahman they were closely associated with agriculture. Any one small caste may look insignificant in itself but all small castes put together become a large social block and a significant social phenomenon. The Other Hypocrisy of upper caste Muslims lending support to Dalits in Gujarat Whether or not Una marks a radical beginning as far as casteism among Muslims is concerned, remains to be seen. Caste-based atrocities have seen a rise in Gujarat between 2015 and 2020. Radhvanaj Rajputs were clearly distinguished from, and ranked much above local Kolis. There was a continuous process of formation and dis­integration of such units. In effect, the Vania popu­lation in a large town like Ahmedabad could have a considerable number of small endogamous units of the third or the fourth order, each with its entire population living and marrying within the town itself. This bulk also was characterized by hierarchy, with the relatively advanced population living in the plains at one end and the backward population living along with the tribal population in the high­lands at the other end. last year | 1 view. The Kanbis (now called Patidars) had five divisions: Leva, Kadya, Anjana, Bhakta, and Matia. The incident took place at Un village in Kankrej tehsil of Banaskantha district yesterday, police said. The urban centres in both the areas, it is hardly nec­essary to mention, are nucleated settlements populated by numerous caste and religious groups. Barot Vahivancha Charan, Gadhvi, Gadhavi (where they are not Scheduled Tribe) -do- 5. This does not, however, help describe caste divisions adequately. A Dalit man from Gujarat has alleged that he was beaten up by a group of upper-caste men for keeping his shirt unbuttoned and using a surname of the Kshatriya or Darbar community. upper caste sweeping and cleaning is bad according to him ... Why Hardik Patel is losing his ‘mass leader’ appeal in Gujarat after joining Congress. When Mr. H. Borradaile in A.D. 1827 collected information regarding the customs of Hindus, no less than 207 castes which did not intermarry, were found in the city of Surat alone”. Inclusion of a lower-order division in a higher-order one and distinc­tion between various divisions in a certain order was not as unambiguous. Bawa, Atit Bawa Goswami Vairagi Bawa Gosai There is enormous literature on these caste divisions from about the middle of the 19th century which includes census reports, gazetteers, castes-and- tribes volumes, ethnographic notes and monographs and scholarly treatises such as those by Baines, Blunt, Ghurye, Hocart, Hutton, Ibbet- son, O’Malley, Risley, Senart, and others. In central Gujarat, for example, one and the same division, freely arranging marriages within it, was known by several names such as Baraiya, Dharala, Khant, Kotwal, Pagi, Patelia, Talapada, Thakarada, and Thakor. Briefly, while the Varna model was significant in the total dynam­ics of the caste system to fit the numerous first-order divisions into the four-fold Varna model in any part of India is impossible, and, therefore, to consider varnas as caste divisions as such is meaningless. In contrast, there were horizontal units, the internal hierarchy and hypergamy of which were restricted to some extent by the formation of small endogamous units and which had discernible boundaries at the lowest level. Far too many studies of changes in caste in mod­ern India start with a general model of caste in traditional India which is in fact a model of caste in traditional rural India. Not only that, there were also third-order divisions (i.e., ekdas) in one or more second-order divisions, and finally one or more fourth-order divisions (i.e., tads) in one or more third-order divisions. Most inter-divisional marriages take place between boys and girls belonging to the lowest order in the structure of divisions. In the meanwhile, it is important to note that there does not seem to have been any attempt to form small endogamous units (ekdas, gols) at any level among the Rajput’s unlike attempts made as we shall see, among some other hypergamous castes in Gujarat. 2:41. This was dramatized in many towns at the mahajan (guild) feasts when all the members of the guild of traders would eat together. In any case, castes are not likely to cease to be castes in the consciousness of people in the foreseeable future. Nowadays, in urban areas in particular, very few people think of making separate seating arrangements for members of different castes at wedding and such other feasts. As regards the specific case of the Rajput-Koli relationship, my impression is that, after the suppression of female infanticide in the first half of the 19th century, the later prohibition of polygyny, and the recent removal of princely states and feudal land tenures among the Rajputs on the one hand, and the increasing sanskritization as well as Rajputization among the Kolis on the other, marriage ties between these divisions have become more extensive than before. While some of the divisions of a lower order might be the result of fission, some others might be a result of fusion. For example, among almost every Vania division there was a dual division into Visa and Dasa: Visa Nagar and Dasa Nagar, Visa Lad and Dasa Lad, Visa Modh and Dasa Modh, Visa Khadayata and Dasa Khadayata, and so on. In central Gujarat, at least from about the middle of the 18th century, the popula­tion of the wealthy and powerful Patidar section of the Kanbis also lived in towns—an extremely interesting development of rich villages into towns, which I will not describe here. Many of these names were also based on place names. This was dramatized at huge feasts called chorasi (literally, eighty-four) when Brahmans belonging to all the traditional 84 second-order divisions sat together to eat food cooked at the same kitchen. Privacy Policy 8. I have done field work in two contiguous parts of Gujarat: central Gujarat (Kheda district and parts of Ahmedabad and Baroda districts) and eastern Gujarat (Panchmahals district). Hindu society is usually described as divided into a number of castes the boundaries of which are maintained by the rule of caste endogamy. Similarly, the Khedawal Brahmans were divided into Baj and Bhitra, the Nagar Brahmans into Grihastha and Bhikshuk, the Anavils into Desai and Bhathela, and the Kanbis into Kanbi and Patidar. Alleged Caste Killing In Gujarat. Yes, it can, Emma Stone is reportedly 'very excited' about her pregnancy and considers herself lucky for THIS reason, Microsoft may earn an Affiliate Commission if you purchase something through recommended links in this article, Bharat Jadhav, a resident of Sanand alleged that he was beaten up by an upper-caste man and his aides, On the complaint of Jadhav, Rajput has been booked under charges of causing hurt and criminal intimidation, While it might sound silly for outsiders, this is, Travel before March 21 & save 20% on your next booking, Unlimited access to 5,000+ magazines and newspapers; flat 50% off. Homo Hierarchicus. 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