An increase in 0.02% of either bio-gum resulted in an approximately 30% increase in plastic viscosity. Among the chemical admixtures, superplasticizers are essential ingredients for controlling the flowability or rheology of SCC. High Range Water Reducer/Superplasticizer. Type III was chosen for its decreased curing time for quicker CNFA manufacturing. High range water reducing admixture reduces the quantity of mixing water required to produce concrete of a given consistency by 12 % or greater, as per ASTM C 494- C 494M. The test is intended to measure a bulk property of the concrete, but the end-point condition for the flowing concrete (510 mm spread) can only be achieved by assuming that the concrete spreads into a disk of 21 mm thickness, equal to the size of the largest particles, and clearly not representative of the bulk. However, their working mechanisms lack a full understanding, revealing in certain cases cement-superplasticizer incompatibilities. The addition of SP in the truck during transit is a fairly modern development within the industry. Their addition to concrete or mortar allows the reduction of the water to cement ratio without negatively affecting the workability of the mixture, and enables the production of self-consolidating concrete and high performance concrete. PNS dispersants usually greatly increase the fluidity of fresh concrete. Air-void stability of concrete incorporating silica fume was studied by Pigeon, Aitcin, and LaPlante (1987) and Pigeon and Plante (1989). On the other hand, the cellulose-based VEA had a rather limited effect on reducing fluidity, despite the high addition rate. The specific gravity of the fibers is 0.0742. High range water reducing admixture (ASTM C494 types F and G) decreases the water-cement ratio and provides high-performance, particularly at early ages. PNS are mostly linear anionic polymers that are commercially available as sodium or calcium salts. Reasonable high range water reducer dosages allowed researchers to maintain specimens' water-to-solids ratio in the 0.22 to 0.40 range, maximizing the limestone powder replacement level, while still providing sufficient flow and rheology. Chemical admixtures can also be dissolved in water and then pumped to the concrete mixer which can result in a more homogenous distribution of admixtures in concrete and a better performance. It results in slow flow with the time under its own weight before it starts to harden, unlike ordinary fresh concrete, which usually assumes its stable shape very rapidly. In total, 22 concrete-equivalent mortars were prepared with welan gum, diutan gum, HPMC and modified starch of different concentrations. High Range Water Reducing Admixture with workability retaining properties. High Range Water Reducer Admixture. They are prepared by crosslinking of the sulfonated monomers using formaldehyde or by sulfonating the corresponding crosslinked polymer. Alireza Kashani, Tuan Ngo, in Self-Compacting Concrete: Materials, Properties and Applications, 2020. 8.9. Several researchers have studied CNF concentrations in cement-based mixtures. D. Marchon, ... R.J. Flatt, in Science and Technology of Concrete Admixtures, 2016. With an addition of 15%, the potential exists for very strong, brittle concrete. HWR – High Range Water Reducer. Small quantities of admixtures are often added to the concrete mixer manually whereas other ingredients such as cement and aggregates are normally transferred to the mixer via a conveyer belt. A CNF concentration with respect to the weight of cement of 0.70% exhibited the largest change in ERV, which matched the results found by Gao et al. While both HRWRs are observed to increase retardation, the performance of HRWR-B would almost certainly be unacceptable from a practical concrete construction viewpoint. We are looking forward to forming successful business relationships with new clients around the world in the near future. High replacement rates will require the use of a high-range water reducer. For this reason, we include at the end of this chapter an extensive section about experimental aspects (Section 10.8). Silica fume has been successfully used to produce very high-strength, low-permeability, and chemically resistant concrete. Effects on Air Entrainment and Air-Void System of Fresh Concrete. Moreover, highly agitated mixing after adding the chemical admixture can result in excessive air entrainment, which can adversely affect the surface finish of SCC by the creation of bugholes during placement. Typically, 5–10% by mass of the cement of silica fume is used along with a high-range water reducer that is required for workability. For instance, the adsorption isotherm of most superplasticizers on cement particles will be equilibrated at a certain concentration. [1], SPs are used where well-dispersed particle suspension is required to improve the flow characteristics (rheology) of suspensions such as in concrete applications. The apparent viscosity at low shear rate was also found to be highly affected by the increase in VEA content; this effect was greater than that of the apparent viscosity at high shear rate.22 As mentioned earlier, the apparent viscosity is greater at low shear rate given the higher degree of VEA polymer entanglement and association of adjacent polymer chains. [1][5], The polymers that serve as plasticizers exhibit surfactant properties. High-Range Water Reducers are used to reduce water demand at 12 - 30%. Howser et al. In the case of a well- dispersed system with a fixed HRWR, which is necessary to ensure self- consolidating consistency in the absence of VEA, an increase in VEA dosage can have an adverse effect on fluidity. For instance, using a calcium chloride-based accelerator in a concrete mixture, which has a sulphonate-based plasticizer and an air-entraining admixture, can increase autogenous shrinkage (Shanahan et al., 2016). However, it is recommended that some admixtures are not to be added simultaneously. ADVA® Cast 575 is a high efficiency, low addition rate polycarboxylate-based high-range water reducer designed for the production of a wide range of concrete mixes, from conventional to Self-Consolidating Concrete (SCC). R. Flatt, I. Schober, in Understanding the Rheology of Concrete, 2012. It can easily be seen that the color of the mortar becomes darker with each increase of CNF concentration up to 1.75%. Visible clumps were observed in tested CNFAs containing 1.00% CNFs by weight of cement. As illustrated in Fig. 8.9, the increase in VEA content for a fixed dosage of HRWR leads to an increase in rheological properties.22 The highest increase in plastic viscosity was observed in the mortar made with the cellulose-based VEA. Because of these incompatibility problems, the mode of action and behaviour of PNS in different cements or concretes have been extensively studied.